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[July 2005 – links restocking in progress]

Historical context, up through the 1600s

Reaping What Was Sown: Spenser, Chaucer, and The Plowman's Tale
Dave Clark - M.A. Thesis. Interesting study of the figure of the plowman in England, regarded as a spokesman for the common people in English literature (now in PDF).
The Works of Jacob Boehme On-Line
Jacob Boehme was a German shoemaker and mystic. His writings were published in English in the early 1600s, and inspired many radical christian groups in Britain, including the Family of Love.
The search for religious and political freedom
Reasons for emigrating to the New World, from a hypertext version of American History, From Revolution to Reconstruction.


National Art Library: Forster Collection
John Forster (1812-1876) was a noted biographer, critic and essayist, probably best remembered for his biography of his friend, the novelist Charles Dickens (1812-1870). Forster was also a historian of the English Civil War period and his collection includes many pamphlets and other materials relating to the Levellers and other radicals.

Diggers, Ranters and other radical Puritans

Gerard Winstanley: 17th Century Communist at Kingston
1996 lecture by Christopher Hill, a radical historian of the period. See also The Religion of Gerrard Winstanley and Digger Communism √, a more religious interpretation of Winstanley and the Diggers.
The World Turned Upside Down: A parable of the English Revolution
A short film, available on video, exploring the history of the Diggers and parallels with current struggles for land by travellers and squatters. The site has photos taken during a battle re-enacted by the Sealed Knot Society.
The English Diggers √
Brief history of the Diggers, at the website of the 20th-century Diggers. Includes the songs.
History and Development of Prose Style
A sample of early 17th century writings, including excerpts from works by John Milton and Abiezer Coppe.
John Milton: Poet, Priest and Prophet
John Spencer Hill (Univ. of Ottawa) makes his book on Milton available -- very nice. See especially Chapter three {and in it, search for "Areopagitica"}.
Milton-L: Milton Texts on the Internet √
Archives of Milton's work provided through common effort of the email-list group Milton-L.

The early Quakers - writings, histories, and modern reflections √ - Quaker History
Russ Nelson's site includes links to Quaker writings and to websites of historical interest.
Quaker Electronic Archive
George Amoss's archives, include texts of early Friends.
The Quaker Writings Home Page
Peter Sippel's pages. Others are working with him to add more writings by Friends, from the 17th century to present. See also the sister site, Quaker Homiletics Online Anthology √.
Larry & Licia Kuenning's home page
There are various historical Quaker e-texts at this site, including some of the writings of Margaret Fell, Thomas Lurting, Job Scott, and Jonathan Dymond. Recently added is the entire four-volume set of the Works of Isaac Penington √ and an online version of an early edition of Barclay's Apology √.
Letter to the Governor of Barbadoes √ - attributed to George Fox
Before visiting Barbados in 1671, George Fox (and/or other Friends advising him) felt he had to affirm certain elements of the Christian creed, and to repudiate the slander "that we teach the negroes to rebel." This document has since become a touchstone of faith for some Friends.
The Sorrows of the Quaker Jesus: James Nayler and the Puritan Crackdown on the Free Spirit (1996) ~
A book by Leo Damrosch, reviewed here by Douglas A. Sweeney in Books & Culture (unfortunately now restricted to pay-per-view).
Some Fruits of Solitude - William Penn
William Penn's aphorisms, published in 1693.
Pennsylvania History: The Quaker Province 1681-1776
Introductory essay on the history of Pennsylvania.
Biographies of Thomas Lloyd √, Phineas Pemberton √, and Nicholas More √.
Three Quaker public officials in early Pennsylvania. Courtesy of the Biographical Dictionary Project √ at Temple University, Philadelphia.
A history of New Jersey Quakers from 1686-1788
Mentions that the monthly meeting in Woodbridge, NJ, was affected by the Keithian separation, and remained inactive for fifteen years.
Memoirs of the Life and Religious Labors of Sunderland P. Gardner √
Memoirs and letters of a Quaker minister of the 1800s. Includes some of the story of Mary Dyer, a distant relative. Posted on the web by Michael Smith, a 4th great-grandnephew.
Richmond Declaration of Faith √
A document issued by Orthodox Friends who met in Richmond, Indiana, in 1887. Most of the Yearly Meetings represented at this conference, however, did not endorse it, according to Chuck Fager in his Case against the Richmond Declaration √.
Evangelicalism and Women in the Society of Friends √
An article by Martin Meeker - from Ex Post Facto, put out by students at San Francisco State University.
Quakers in Brief
An over-view of the Quaker movement from 1650 to 1990, by David M. Murray-Rust, Birkenhead Meeting, Merseyside, UK (1995)
Meeting the Spirit √
A pamphlet, first written for Lithuanians who had formed a Quaker worship group. Historically sensitive.
Christ in Early Quakerism √
Essay by Maurice Creasey, published by the Tract Association of Friends √.
Peninsula Evangelical Friends Church √
Peninsula Evangelical Friends Church, Port Angeles, Washington, has webpages in the website. Includes a brief history of Quakers in "What Is An Evangelical Friend?"
Northwest Community Friends Church √ - in Tucson, Arizona
Includes a brief history and a friendly explanation of the difference between "pastoral" and "unprogrammed" Friends. Well worth a visit.
Evangelical Friends Church Southwest √ - Whittier, California
A thorough introduction, including a page on the influence of Quaker history, from a Friends Church that seems to want little to do with other sorts of Friends. Another page considers Friends' sufficiency in Christ with respect to baptism and communion.
San Francisco Friends Meeting √
Humungous blogging website. The meeting's old website still includes Friendly Answers √ to questions about Quakers.
Quaker Cafe - Meeting for Social Science
Ottawa Friends Meeting's peaceweb site includes a space for reflection on Quakers in history and current events.

Moving on, from the 1700s onwards

SA 20 Wenzer
William Goodwin, influenced by Diggers - an article in Social Anarchy mag (on-line)
Thomas Paine 1737
Born and raised a Quaker, died in poverty and refused burial in a Quaker cemetary. See also the Paine Archives which include "Rights of Man," "Age of Reason" and many other writings, and links to other sites.
Walt Whitman's _Leaves of Grass_.
The book of poetry that evolved as he matured. He also was born and raised a Quaker.
An American Anti-Imperialist: Mark Twain on the Philippine-American War
Part of a series on Mark Twain, part of Jim Zwick's study of Anti-Imperialism in the United States, 1898-1935.
Prominent Anarchists and Left-Libertarians
Including William Godwin.
The Renewal Movement: The Peace Testimony and Modern Quakerism
Article by Allen Smith, detailing how a radical reemphasis on the peace testimony by Quakers during this past century transformed the Religious Society of Friends and contributed in various ways to other radical movements.

The ancient Rights and Liberties of the people, still contested

Frame of Government of Pennsylvania
Excerpts from the "Frame of Government" drawn up by William Penn.
Index of the Constitution
Hypertext copy of the Constitution, including bits not included in the approved version.
Web Guide to The Constitution of the United States
Provided as a public service by The Constitution Notebook Company, includes links to various sites with views on the subject.
The Essential Bill of Rights by James L. Huffman
Basically a running advertisement for books published by the Independent Institute, this essay also reviews other books about civil liberties in the modern age.
An index of books that were censored in the English-speaking world over the centuries, with an annotated bibliography.
Would the Real First Amendment Please Stand Up?
An On-Line Book by Barry Krusch. (404k, plus pictures.) He seems motivated by a brush with The New York Times.
Institute for First Amendment Studies
"Our home page contains a wealth of information on the Religious Right. Whether your focus is on reproductive rights, gay rights, censorship, education, law, politics, religion, televangelists, church/state issues - you'll find it on the IFAS home page."
American Pro Se Association
These people are into defending themselves in court, carrying on a venerable tradition in which John Lilburne established many of the first precedents.
Common Law Network
Every citizen equal before the law - learn it, teach it, share it - the legal system cannot be for sale in a democracy.
The Second Amendment and the Historiography of the Bill of Rights.
The "right of the people to keep and bear arms" was a product of the people's experience during the English Civil Wars, shaped by enlightenment thinking and supported by a constituency quite different from the southern gentry, who emphasized the need for a "well regulated militia." This article by David Hardy, at the Second Amendment Foundation website, refers to the Levellers and Diggers in explaining "the stance of Sam Adams, Thomas Paine, and the urban patriots of Boston and Philadelphia."
Silence! -- Silence: The Ultimate Protector of Individual Rights
Excellent discussion of the trials of Lilburne, Penn, and Mead, which laid the foundation for our rights - to remain silent, to the presumption of innocence, and to trial by a jury of our peers.
Trial by Jury -- The Magic Bullet That Stops Tyranny in Its Tracks
The roots of today's Fully Informed Jury Association in the English Revolution, particularly in the trials of John Lilburne and of William Penn (and William Mead). This essay is one of the better ones from the Future of Freedom Foundation.

Archives and Study Centers

Recollection Used Books: Book, Author & Bibliographies Links
A wonderful representation of what you can find in a good used book store (if you can find one these days).
Voice of the Shuttle: Web Page for Humanities Research
"And there is 'the voice of the shuttle' in Sophocles' Tereus" -- Aristotle, Poetics 16.4.
This site includes extensive references in English literture, History, Legal Studies, Religion, and other studies.
Center for Utopian Studies
Includes a library of original texts and links, and many other materials and reflections on Utopia in society.
Stercovores abound - Peter Jaques' homepage
Includes E-Texts and other links and references.
The E-Text Archives
Multiple sites and texts, including the Spunk Press Home.
Spunk Press Catalog: misc
A server for Spunk archives in the Netherlands, including one bit that mentions the Diggers in England and San Francisco.
Recovered Fragments of Dr. Pseudocryptonym's Book Knowledge
Includes books by Anatole France, James Joyce, and George Bernard Shaw, and many textual links and reflections.
Mark/Space: Anachron City: Library: Keywords: Utopia
Communities, films, utopias, and related links.
American and British History Resources on the Internet
What it says. Hundreds of links (67k). See also American History Sites
Center for Millennial Studies
Awaiting the millenium, from religious, new age, academic, and other perspectives. They have a list of millenial movements in history, which includes the diggers and levellers.

Reflections on History, and Herstory

The Quaker Corner
Quakers kept good records and have a fine reputation, so it's fun to discover them in the family tree. Includes Quaker Queries, an ongoing bulletin board service for people seeking information on their Quaker ancestors. All part of JTR's The Gene Pool site. (Mind the music: Life is a cabaret?)
Katie Bond's pages include lots of American Quaker genealogy surnames, with references for some of them from Quaker literature.
Bickerstaff - The name for the nineties!
In midsummer Winstanley and two others, Thomas Starr and Henry Bickerstaffe, were arrested for trespass and brought to court in Kingston. "Good lord - radicals in the family!"
The Day the World Turned Upside Down
Leon Russelson's song, adapted from Winstanley's writings and covered by Billy Bragg, Chumbawamba and Attilla the Stockbroker..
Utopias Philosophy 200-001
Larry Ashley's philosophy course on utopias, including Diggers, 19th c. intentional communities in America, the German nature/self-sufficiency movement, and the Israeli kibbutzim.
Hakim Bey and Ontological Anarchy
A wild view of history, embracing all sorts of freedom seekers who, from time to time, do seem to find freedom (if only for a time). Hakim Bey presents himself as a sort of mystic, affiliated with the Moorish Orthodox Church of America, and very much in the tradition of certain Muslim schools of thought.
Women's History Information Project
A project of the Industrial Workers of the World, Spring '97 was the first issue.
Feminist Science Fiction, Fantasy, & Utopia.
A growing list, with reviews and recommendations, and much more.

Toward a History of the Present Time

Lovink Carrier Title Page
Interview with Tjebbe van Tijen, archivist for the '60s in Amsterdam.
Farm History
Long essay by Timothy Miller - "Roots of Communal Revival 1962-1966," at the Historical Society for The Farm.
Communal Studies Bibliography
Communes, communities, and utopian colonies - a reading list.
The Digger archives, on the Diggers who surfaced in San Francisco and New York in the middle part of this century.
HyperMedia Research Centre
Includes the London Rainbow Tribe, along with other "guests."

All links checked and updated, 27-Aug-1998. Please let me know of dead links and suggestions for new ones: CONTACT.

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