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T.B. Macaulay

History of England

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The Accession of James II.





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T.B. Macaulay

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Introduction — Britain under the Romans — Britain under the Saxons — Conversion of the Saxons to Christianity — Danish Invasions — The Normans — The Norman Conquest — Separation of England and Normandy — Amalgamation of Races — English Conquests on the Continent

Wars of the Roses — Extinction of Villenage — Beneficial Operation of the Roman Catholic Religion — The early English Polity often misrepresented, and why? — Nature of the Limited Monarchies of the Middle Ages — Prerogatives of the early English Kings — Limitations of the Prerogative — Resistance an ordinary Check on Tyranny in the Middle Ages — Peculiar Character of the English Aristocracy — Government of the Tudors — Limited Monarchies of the Middle Ages generally turned into Absolute Monarchies — The English Monarchy a singular Exception

The Reformation and its Effects — Origin of the Church of England — Her peculiar Character — Relation in which she stood to the Crown — The Puritans — Their Republican Spirit — No systematic parliamentary Opposition offered to the Government of Elizabeth — Question of the Monopolies

Scotland and Ireland become Parts of the same Empire with England — Diminution of the Importance of England after the Accession of James I — Doctrine of Divine Right — The Separation between the Church and the Puritans becomes wider — Accession and Character of Charles I — Tactics of the Opposition in the House of Commons — Petition of Right — Petition of Right violated

Character and Designs of Wentworth — Character of Laud — Star Chamber and High Commission — Ship-Money — Resistance to the Liturgy in Scotland — A Parliament called and dissolved — The Long Parliament — First Appearance of the Two great English Parties — The Remonstrance — Impeachment of the Five Members — Departure of Charles from London

Commencement of the Civil War — Successes of the Royalists — Rise of the Independents — Oliver Cromwell — Selfdenying Ordinance — Victory of the Parliament — Domination and Character of the Army — Rising against the Military Government suppressed — Proceedings against the King — His Execution

Subjugation of Ireland and Scotland — Expulsion of the Long Parliament — The Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell — Oliver succeeded by Richard — Fall of Richard and Revival of the Long Parliament — Second Expulsion of the Long Parliament — The Army of Scotland marches into England — Monk declares for a Free Parliament — General Election of 1660 — The Restoration


Conduct of those who restored the House of Stuart unjustly censured — Abolition of Tenures by Knight Service — Disbandment of the Army — Disputes between the Roundheads and Cavaliers renewed — Religious Dissension — Unpopularity of the Puritans — Character of Charles II — Character of the Duke of York and Earl of Clarendon — General Election of 1661 — Violence of the Cavaliers in the new Parliament

Persecution of the Puritans — Zeal of the Church for Hereditary Monarchy — Change in the Morals of the Community — Profligacy of Politicians — State of Scotland — State of Ireland — The Government become unpopular in England — War with the Dutch — Opposition in the House of Commons — Fall of Clarendon

State of European Politics, and Ascendancy of France — Character of Lewis XIV — The Triple Alliance — The Country Party — Connection between Charles II. and France — Views of Lewis with respect to England — Treaty of Dover — Nature of the English Cabinet — The Cabal — Shutting of the Exchequer — War with the United Provinces, and their extreme Danger — William, Prince of Orange

Meeting of the Parliament — Declaration of Indulgence — It is cancelled, and the Test Act passed — The Cabal dissolved — Peace with the United Provinces — Administration of Danby — Embarrassing Situation of the Country Party — Dealings of that Party with the French Embassy — Peace of Nimeguen — Violent Discontents in England — Fall of Danby — The Popish Plot — Violence of the new House of Commons — Temple's Plan of Government

Character of Halifax — Character of Sunderland — Prorogation of the Parliament — Habeas Corpus Act — Second General Election of 1679 — Popularity of Monmouth — Lawrence Hyde — Sidney Godolphin — Violence of Factions on the Subject of the Exclusion Bill — Names of Whig and Tory — Meeting of Parliament — The Exclusion Bill passes the Commons — Exclusion Bill rejected by the Lords — Execution of Stafford

General Election of 1681 — Parliament held at Oxford, and dissolved — Tory Reaction — Persecution of the Whigs — Charter of the City confiscated — Whig Conspiracies — Detection of the Whig Conspiracies — Severity of the Government — Seizure of Charters — Influence of the Duke of York — He is opposed by Halifax — Lord Guildford — Policy of Lewis — State of Factions in the Court of Charles at the time of his Death


Great Change in the State of England since 1685 — Population of England in 1685 — Increase of Population greater in the North than in the South — Revenue in 1685 — Military System — The Navy — The Ordnance — Noneffective Charge

Charge of Civil Government — Great Gains of Ministers and Courtiers — State of Agriculture — Mineral Wealth of the Country — Increase of Rent — The Country Gentlemen

The Clergy — The Yeomanry — Growth of the Towns — Bristol — Norwich — Other Country Towns — Manchester — Leeds — Sheffield — Birmingham — Liverpool

Watering-places — Cheltenham — Brighton — Buxton — Tunbridge Wells — Bath — London — The City — Fashionable Part of the Capital — Lighting of London — Police of London — Whitefriars

The Court — The Coffee Houses — Difficulty of Travelling — Badness of the Roads — Stage Coaches — Highwaymen — Inns

Post Office — Newspapers — News-letters — The Observator — Scarcity of Books in Country Places — Female Education — Literary Attainments of Gentlemen — Influence of French Literature — Immorality of the Polite Literature of England

State of Science in England — State of the Fine Arts — State of the Common People — Agricultural Wages — Wages of Manufacturers — Labour of Children in Factories — Wages of different Classes of Artisans — Number of Paupers — Benefits derived by the Common People from the Progress of Civilisation — Delusion which leads Men to overrate the Happiness of preceding Generations


Death of Charles II — Suspicions of Poison — Speech of James II. to the Privy Council — James proclaimed — State of the Administration — New Arrangements — Sir George Jeffreys — The Revenue collected without an Act of Parliament

A Parliament called — Transactions between James and the French King — Churchill sent Ambassador to France — His History — Feelings of the Continental Governments towards England — Policy of the Court of Rome — Struggle in the Mind of James — Fluctuations in his Policy — Public Celebration of the Roman Catholic Rites in the Palace — His Coronation — Enthusiasm of the Tories' Addresses — The Elections

Proceedings against Oates — Proceedings against Dangerfield — Proceedings against Baxter — Meeting of the Parliament of Scotland — Feeling of James towards the Puritans — Cruel Treatment of the Scotch Covenanters

Feeling of James towards the Quakers — William Penn — Peculiar Favour shown to Roman Catholics and Quakers — Meeting of the English Parliament — Trevor chosen Speaker — Character of Seymour — The King's Speech to the Parliament — Debate in the Commons — Speech of Seymour — The Revenue voted — Proceedings of the Commons concerning Religion — Additional Taxes voted — Sir Dudley North — Proceedings of the Lords — Bill for reversing the Attainder of Stafford


Whig Refugees on the Continent — Their Correspondents in England — Characters of the leading Refugees — Ayloffe — Wade — Goodenough — Rumbold — Lord Grey — Monmouth — Ferguson — Scotch Refugees: Earl of Argyle — Sir Patrick Hume — Sir John Cochrane — Fletcher of Saltoun — Unreasonable Conduct of the Scotch Refugees — Arrangement for an Attempt on England and Scotland — John Locke

Preparations made by Government for the Defence of Scotland — Conversation of James with the Dutch Ambassadors — Ineffectual Attempts to prevent Argyle from sailing — Departure of Argyle from Holland — He lands in Scotland — His Disputes with his Followers — Temper of the Scotch Nation — Argyle's Forces dispersed — Argyle a Prisoner — His Execution. — Execution of Rumbold — Death of Ayloffe — Devastation of Argyleshire

Ineffectual Attempts to prevent Monmouth from leaving Holland — His Arrival at Lyme — His Declaration — His Popularity in the West of England — Encounter of the Rebels with the Militia at Bridport — Encounter of the Rebels with the Militia at Axminster — News of the Rebellion carried to London — Loyalty of the Parliament — Reception of Monmouth at Taunton — He takes the Title of King — His Reception at Bridgewater

Preparations of the Government to oppose him — His Design on Bristol — He relinquishes that Design — Skirmish at Philip's Norton — Despondence of Monmouth — He returns to Bridgewater — The Royal Army encamps at Sedgemoor — Battle of Sedgemoor — Pursuit of the Rebels — Military Executions — Flight of Monmouth

His Capture — His Letter to the King — He is carried to London — His Interview with the King — His Execution — His Memory cherished by the Common People — Cruelties of the Soldiers in the West — Kirke — Jeffreys sets out on the Western Circuit — Trial of Alice Lisle

The Bloody Assizes — Abraham Holmes — Christopher Battiseombe — The Hewlings — Punishment of Tutchin — Rebels Transported — Confiscation and Extortion — Rapacity of the Queen and her Ladies — Grey; Cochrane; Storey — Wade, Goodenough, and Ferguson — Jeffreys made Lord Chancellor — Trial and Execution of Cornish — Trials and Executions of Fernley and Elizabeth Gaunt — Trial and Execution of Bateman — Persecution of the Protestant Dissenters

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